As the Bengal trade expanded the directors of the EIC created a separate agency for Bengal and in 1682, appointed one of their own, William Hedges, to become the first Chief Agent of Bengal. Growth of the city In 1717 the Mughal emperor Farrukh-Siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees; this arrangement gave a great impetus to the growth of Calcutta. Planned by British architect William Emerson, the building is constructed of white marble sourced from Rajasthan and combines Indian and British … The Indian merchants lived in the Black Town north of the fort whereas the Indians of lower socioeconomic class lived towards the south. The only bridge linking Kolkata to its twin city Howrah over River Hooghly was built … Calcutta was the capital of British India, and under colonial rule, it burgeoned into a thriving metropolis. The Bengal Army led by Nawab Sirajud Daula attacked and laid siege to the fort and the British surrendered on June 20, 1756. 20th century Calcutta saw the shifting of power to the British Empire’s new capital, Delhi, and the subsequent neglect. In 1706 the population of Calcutta was roughly between 10,000 and 12,000. The presidency armies were the armies of the three presidencies of the East India Company's rule in India, later the forces of the British Crown in India, composed primarily of Indian sepoys.The presidency armies were named after the presidencies: the Bengal Army, the Madras Army and the Bombay Army.Initially, only Europeans served as commissioned or non-commissioned officers. The abolition of inland customs duties in 1835 created an open market, and the construction of railways (beginning in 1854) further quickened the development of business and industry. Completely separated from Bengal Presidency were Straits Settlements in 1867, Aden, Burma in 1937. Old Fort William was functional between 1700 and 1756. Presidency College - 1870 Designed by Robert F. Chisholm in pure Italian style derived from Renaissance Classicism Lectures and Seminars are held in the hall Mayo College of Mant at Ajmer was built in Indo - saracenic. It was at this time that the Grand Trunk Road from Calcutta to Peshawar (now in Pakistan) was completed. On the river side the rear entrance led to the Ghats or landing places. The nawab was defeated shortly afterward at Plassey (June 1757), after which British rule in Bengal was assured. This area around Fort William-Calcutta-became the seat of the British province known as the Bengal Presidency. By now the city, however, was self-sufficient in many ways and it continued to remain an important centre of administration even after the transfer of the capital. However, manipulatively, they began constructing the fortress with all available manpower. Britishers built the three presidency cities in India during their rule and these are Bombay presidency (established in 1687), Calcutta presidency (established in 1690) and Madras Presidency (established in 1640). During this period, small units of the Calcutta Scottish were deployed on eighteen operations. For most of the 17th century the commercial interests of the East India Company (EIC) was managed from Fort St. George in Madras (Chennai). With its proto-industrial economy, Bengal contributed to the first Industrial Revolution in Britain (particularly in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution). It was Hedges’ idea to build a fortified port close to the mouth of the Hooghly River to protect British interests from other European powers as well as from subordinates of the Nawab of Bengal. The map is oriented east (north is to the left). If we project this map into modern Kolkata the fort would be in the area of Dalhousie Square between Fairlie Place in the north and BTM Sarani in the south. Inside the walls was the imposing Factory or Government house, the armory, storage facilities and the clerks’ quarters. KM : 56 Qualité de la monnaie : SPL Métal : Cuivre Pays : INDIA-BRITISH Valeur faciale : Pice Atelier : Calcutta Type de produit : Monnaie Année : Year 37 (1829) 6.63 gr 1717 The Mughal emperor Farrukh-siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees. 1699 East India Company started developing Calcutta as a Presidency city. - DR82ET from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. 1/2 Roupie an 19 BRITISH INDIA – EAST INDIA COMPANY - BENGAL PRESIDENCY Calcutta n.d. (22mm, 5,79g, 12h) TTB Numismatique, monnaies anciennes, monnaies de collection, billets MA-SHOPS Garantie monnaies, billets et livres. There were so many palaces in the British sector of the city that it was named the “city of palaces.” Outside the British town were built the mansions of the newly rich, as well as clusters of huts. Download this stock image: Alipore Jail in Calcutta, India, built by the British to hold politcal prisoners during the time of British Rule over India. Cyclones in 1864, 1867, and 1870, however, devastated the poorer, low-lying areas. The original fort was built by British East India Company and the work started under the supervision of John Goldsborough in 1696. [1] It is said to be the largest cathedral in Kolkata and the first Episcopal Church in Asia. In 1814 the Lottery Committee was constituted to finance public improvement by means of lotteries, and between 1814 and 1836 it took some effective measures to improve conditions. A supreme court administering English law began to exercise original jurisdiction over the city as far as the Maratha Ditch (now Acharya Prafulla Chandra and Jagadish Chandra Bose roads). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. There is a brass line on the steps of the Kolkata GPO marking the southeast bastion of the fort. British mercantile, banking, and insurance interests flourished. However, following the decline of the Mughal Empire in 1707 and after the East India Co… The municipal corporation was established in 1841. The shaded habitations in this map are marked as English Houses. A large number of Indian merchants flocked to the city. The British started developing Calcutta as a presidency unit and sought permission from the Governor to use their own army to protect their factories, which they got. Facebook Twitter Email WhatsApp. Calcutta in 1756 was a segregated city. Gobindapore was cleared of its forests, and the new Fort William was built on its present site, overlooking the Hugli at Calcutta, where it became the symbol of British … This plan is that of the Old Fort William as it existed in 1756. In 1773 Bombay (now Mumbai) and Madras (now Chennai) became subordinate to the government at Fort William. Murshidabad was capital of Bengal. It was also the first cathedral built in the overseas territory of the British Empire. Calcutta was recaptured in January 1757 by Robert Clive, one of the founders of British power in India, and by the British admiral Charles Watson. After the victory of Clive over the Nawab in the battle of Plassey in 1757, Old Fort William was abandoned. The cornerstone was laid in 1839; the building was completed in 1847. The east face fronting the river extended 700 feet. By successive stages, as British power extended over the subcontinent, the whole of northern India became a hinterland for the port of Calcutta. The White (British) Town was built on ground that had been raised and drained. In 1608, the English East India Company established a settlement at Surat (now in the state of Gujarat), and this became the company's first headquarters town. For example, the revenue of pre-colonial Dhaka alone was 1 million rupees in the 18th century (a high amount in that era). In 1696 when Charles Eyre was Chief Agent of the EIC in Calcutta, the authorization for transfer of the Jagirdari (Tenancy) of the villages of Sutanuti, Kalikata and Govindapur was obtained from Prince Azim-us-Shan, the Governor of Bengal and grandson of Emperor Aurangzeb. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Lord Curzon, viceroy of India, partitioned Bengal in 1905, making Dacca (now Dhaka, Bangl.) One of Kolkata ’s finest historical monuments, Fort William was built during the time of the Bengal Presidency and is an architectural marvel. In 1699 the EIC declared Bengal as a separate Presidency and named the fort to be built in Calcutta as Fort William after the then British monarch William III. Historical Atlas, Bangladesh, India since 1947, Pakistan, South Asia Pages see also EIC India for the history of India under the E.I.C., 1759-1858, British India for the history of British India 1858-1947 The site of the fort is marked with the letter a. The most serious communal riots of all took place in 1946, when the partition of British India became imminent and tensions between Muslims and Hindus reached their height. In 1858, administrative power was handed over from the East India Company to the British Crown, and in 1869 the foundation stone for Victoria Memorial Hall was laid by Prince of Wales (opened in 1921). August 1, 2020 / Spotlight. Mughal Bengal accounted for 12% of the world's GDP and was a major exporter of silk, cotton, saltpeter, and agricultural produce. the capital of eastern Bengal and Assam. It was named after King William III of England in 1700. Bengal, 1710, map published by Pieter van der Aa. The troops of the Calcutta Scottish regiment were joined with the Calcutta Volunteer Machine Guns and served in few British battles. Chhabi Biswas was born on July 12, 1900 in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India as Sachindranath Biswas. PLAN FOR THE INTELLIGENCE OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS AT CALCUTTA WHEN ATTACKED AND TAKEN BY SEERAJAH DOWLET 1756. Three principal avenues led out of this entrance, at the end of each was an artillery battery. This section of the town was called the European Town but colloquially as the White Town. In 1699 the EIC declared Bengal as a separate Presidency and named the fort to be built in Calcutta as Fort William after the then British monarch William III. Insistent agitation led to the annulment of this partition in 1911, but at that time the capital of British India was removed from Calcutta to Delhi, where the government could enjoy relative calm. Map of Calcutta (c. 1900), from the 10th edition of. It increased to nearly 120,000 by 1752 and to 180,000 by 1821. The large lake east of the fort is now called Lal Dighi. Engineers in classical style. In 1773 Bombay (now Mumbai) and Madras (now Chennai) became subordinate to the government at Fort William. Calcutta ou Kolkata depuis 2001 [Note 1] (bengali : কলকাতা, hindi : कोलकाता) est une ville du Nord-Est de l'Inde. Hindustan under the Great Mughals was an economic superpower, and Bengal was its most glittering, coveted, asset. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. He was an actor and director, known for Karnarjun (1941), Kabuliwala (1957) and Jar Jetha Ghar (1949). Named after William III, the fort sits on the banks of the Hooghly River and was at the centre of the Battle of Plassey fought between the British and the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daulah. Before the coming of British Calcutta was just a village. This beautiful monument, one of Kolkata’s best known, was built between 1906 and 1921 in memory of Queen Victoria, following her death in 1901. Besides the English it housed large numbers of people of Portuguese, Armenian and Eurasian descent. Writers’ Building, Tank Square. View top-quality stock photos of Alipore Jail In Calcutta India Built By The British To Hold Political Prisoners. Calcutta became the intellectual centre of the subcontinent. It became capital of British in 1771 after the defeat of Siraj-uddullah. Calcutta became Presidency Town of East India Company in 1699 but the Bengal Presidency came into existence in 1765 after a treaty was signed between East India Company, Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of Audh. 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