The Battle of Crooked River in late October led to Lilburn Boggs, the Governor of Missouri, issuing the Missouri Executive Order 44, ordering the Mormons to leave Missouri or be killed. This page provides historical background on the persecution of Mormons in Missouri, leading to the 1838 Extermination Order. King found that there was sufficient evidence to have the defendants appear before a grand jury on misdemeanor charges. However, no determination of the order's legality was ever made. [13][42], Sentiment among the anti-Mormon segment of Carroll County's population hardened, and some began to take up arms. [24] Possession became unclear and the dissenters threatened the church with lawsuits. The tension … Samuel C. Owens, County Clerk Samuel Bogart and his militia, operating in northern Ray County (to the south of Caldwell). Joseph Smith, returning to Far West from De Witt, was informed by General Doniphan of the deteriorating situation. Shortly after what Mormons consider to be the restoration of the gospel in 1830, Smith stated that he had received a revelation that the Second Coming of Christ was near, that the City of Zion would be near the town of Independence in Jackson County, Missouri, and that his followers were destined to inherit the land held by the current settlers. Executive Order 44, sometimes called the "Extermination Order," was issued on October 27, 1838, ultimately the expulsion of the Mormons from Missouri. John C. Bennett, a disaffected Mormon, reported that Smith had offered a cash reward to anyone who would assassinate Boggs, and that Smith had admitted to him that Rockwell had done the deed. Smith was charged for treason but escaped custody and fled to Illinois with the remainder of the estimated 10,000 Missouri Mormons, establishing the new settlement of Nauvoo. Nathan Tanner reported that his militia company rescued another woman and three small children who were hiding in the bushes as their home burned. The skirmish is often cited as the first serious violence of the war in Missouri. The men under the command of Lucas were then allowed to ransack the city to search for weapons. Russel Hicks, Deputy County Clerk Spelling in the Manuscripts and Editions, The History of the Text of the Book of Mormon. According to Hinkle, Smith wanted a treaty with the Missourians "on any terms short of battle". [44], As tensions built in Daviess County, other counties began to respond to Carroll County's request for assistance in expelling the Mormons from their county. Tensions had been steadily rising due to 1833 newspaper articles written in Independence, Missouri, which culminated in a manifesto published by many Missouri public officials. Once Latter-day Saints were disarmed, mounted squads visited Mormon settlements with threats and enough beatings and destruction of homes to force flight. [26] After surviving an assassination attempt in 1842, Governor Boggs ultimately emigrated to California, where he died in relative obscurity in the Napa Valley in 1860. March 27: One thousand worshippers begin a … [2] The Militia and other state authorities—General John B. Clark, among them—used the executive order to violently expel the Mormons from their lands in the state following their capitulation, which in turn led to their forced migration to Nauvoo, Illinois. Stripped of their property, the Mormons were then given a few months to leave the state. ", "You are d__d Mormons. Rumor reached Far West that a Militia unit from Ray County had taken Mormons prisoner and an armed party was quickly assembled to rescue these prisoners and push the Militia out of the county. The Mormons were evicted from Jackson County in 1833 and resettled in new counties nearby, where tensions grew again and attempts to evict them resumed. That's offence enough. [86] Other Latter Day Saint witnesses remembered that Smith said to "beg like a dog for peace". Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, and other leaders left at Far West warned the veterans of Crooked River to flee. Although the Mormon leaders surrendered at Far West on November 1, Mormons (especially in outlying areas) continued to be subject to harassment and even forced ejection by citizens and Militia units. [48], The besieged town resorted to butchering whatever loose livestock wandered into town in order to avoid starvation while waiting for the militia or the Governor to come to their aid. To enforce this, U.S. President Chester A. Arthur sent the Utah Commission. On the Mormon side, Gideon Carter was killed in the battle and nine other Mormons were wounded, including Patten, who soon after died from his wounds. Unfortunately, the shop had large gaps between the logs which the Missourians shot into and, as one Mormon later recalled, it became more "slaughter-house rather than a shelter". WHEREAS, in this bicentennial year as we reflect on our nation's heritage, the exercise of religious freedom is without question one of the basic tenets of our free democratic republic; Now, THEREFORE, I, CHRISTOPHER S. BOND, Governor of the State of Missouri, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the State of Missouri, do hereby order as follows: Expressing on behalf of all Missourians our deep regret for the injustice and undue suffering which was caused by the 1838 order, I hereby rescind Executive Order Number 44, dated October 27, 1838, issued by Governor W. Boggs. Judge Josiah Morin and Samuel McBrier, both considered friendly to the Mormons, both fled Daviess County after being threatened. The Mormons divided into three columns led by David W. Patten, Charles C. Rich, and James Durphee. Several Mormon homes near Millport were burned and their inhabitants expelled into the snow. [57] Millport, which at time was the largest city in the county and the center for trade, never recovered from the Mormon burnings, and became a ghost town. Many of Boggs's constituents felt that he had mis-managed the situation, by failing to intervene earlier in the crisis, and then by overreacting on the basis of partial and incorrect information. Instead therefore of proceeding as at first directed to reinstate the citizens of Daviess in their homes, you will proceed immediately to Richmond and then operate against the Mormons. [117] Boggs survived, but Mormons came under immediate suspicion especially of the alleged failed assassination attempt by Orrin Porter Rockwell of the Mormon Danites. Slavery has long been cited as the primary cause for the persecutions, but German immigrants, who were much more vocally against slavery than the Saints, were not targeted. In his famous Salt Sermon, Sidney Rigdon announced that the dissenters were as salt that had lost its savor and that it was the duty of the faithful to cast the dissenters out to be trodden beneath the feet of men. One of the latest appeals was addressed by Smith at Nauvoo in December, 1843, to his native state, Vermont, calling on the Green Mountain boys, not only to assist him in attaining justice in Missouri, but also to humble and chastise or abase her for the disgraces she has brought upon constitutional liberty, until she atones for her sin.[17]. [57], Even Missourians who had been friendly to the Mormons were not spared. [19], In the eyes of many non-Mormon citizens (including Alexander Doniphan),[10] these settlements outside of Caldwell County were a violation of the compromise. Jacob Stollings, a Gallatin merchant, was reported to have been generous in selling to Mormons on credit, but his store was plundered and burned with the rest. If ye are faithful, ye shall assemble yourselves together to rejoice upon the land of Missouri, which is the land of your inheritance, which is now the land of your enemies.[5]. Previously, Governor Boggs had received word that Mormons had driven several citizens of Daviess County (north of Caldwell) from their homes. A few miles more brought us to Haun's Mill, where that awful scene of murder was enacted. They believed that the Native Americans were descendants of Israelites and proselytized among them extensively. By JUSTIN COFFEY The city of Quincy has always been a welcoming community, but never more so than during the winter of 1838-1839 when the residents provided aid, … In 1837, the Twelve Apostles left on missions to England, the first foreign mission of the Mormon Church. "[121], Siege of Far West and capture of church leaders. My brigade shall march for Liberty to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock, and if you execute those men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly tribunal, so help me God! Nauvoo: The City of Joseph and the martyrdom of the Prophet (1838–1846) The Mormons finally … Most Mormon immigrants to Missouri (which was at the time a, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 08:25. At that time, opponents of the Mormons used a pattern that would be repeated four times,[12] culminating in the expulsion of the Mormons from the entire state. Mormons established new colonies outside of Caldwell County, including Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County and De Witt in Carroll County. (Rockwood, Journal, 11 Nov. 1838, CHL.) [35] The crowd dispersed, and the Mormons returned to their homes. The short answer to this question is yes, but it’s often not widely known that the state of Missouri is significant to Mormons for several other reasons as well. Three days later, on October 30, 1838, a militia unit from Livingston County planned a revenge attack upon a Mormon settlement at Haun's Mill, Missouri. The Mormon-Missouri War (also called the Mormon War or the Missouri War) was an armed conflict between the Latter-day Saints and other citizens of northern Missouri in the fall of 1838. [120], Whatever the case, the following year Rockwell was arrested, tried, and acquitted of the attempted murder,[118] although most of Boggs' contemporaries remained convinced of his guilt. The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the state if necessary for the public peace—their outrages are beyond all description. "If you proceed any farther west," said the captain, "you will be instantly shot. [105], Daviess County residents were outraged by the escape of Smith and the other leaders. On July 4, 1838, church leader Sidney Rigdon delivered an oration in Far West, the county seat of Caldwell County. [4] All of the conflicts in the Mormon War occurred in a corridor 100 miles (160 km) to the east and northeast of Kansas City. General Clark cited Executive Order 44 soon after the Mormon settlers, mostly unarmed and poor immigrants, surrendered in November 1838, saying that violence would have been used had they chosen not to surrender. Beckstorm, Danielle. The 1838 Mormon War, also known as the Missouri Mormon War, was a conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons in Missouri from August to November 1838, the first of the three "Mormon Wars". David W. Patten, also known as Captain Fearnot, attacked Gallatin. [16] They had also founded the Caldwell County town of Far West as their Missouri headquarters. Meanwhile, a revelation came to Joseph that the Church needed to be in one body. It soon became clear that Missouri non-Mormons and Mormons could not live in the same area harmoniously. [7][18] They instead indicate that unnamed Mormon dissenters had told them that the people of Haun's Mill were planning to invade Livingston County. Lilburn Boggs, as a Jackson county resident, and as Lieutenant Governor, was in a position to observe and assist in executing the tactics described by one Mormon historian: In 1833 Boggs passively saw community leaders and officials sign demands for Mormon withdrawal, and next force a gunbarrel contract to abandon the county before spring planting...anti-Mormon goals were reached in a few simple stages. On June 19, the dissenters and their families fled to neighboring counties where their complaints fanned anti-Mormon sentiment. Henry Chiles, attorney-at-law [37], Black and others filed complaints against Smith and the other identifiable Mormon participants. The militia promptly arrested Smith and the other leaders. They knew it, for they searched our wagons. Cummins, Indian agent Traditionally, historians have cited a number of issues that led to the Missouri persecutions of the Latter-day Saints. In October 1833, anti-Mormon mobs drove the Mormons from Jackson County.[11]. Later that day, the Carroll County forces sealed off the town. Martin Harris: Uncompromising Witness of the Book of Mormon. McBrier's house was among those burned. On the same day, July 20, 1833, the W. W. Phelps printing press, which published the Evening and the Morning Star in Independence, was destroyed by a mob. Lucas tried Joseph Smith and other Mormon leaders by court martial on November 1, the evening of the surrender. [21], The earlier settlers saw expansion of Mormon communities outside of Caldwell County as a political and economic threat. [104], It is also believed that Smith's imprisonment had become an embarrassment, and that an escape would be convenient for Boggs and the rest of the Missouri political establishment. The Mormons in Caldwell County, as part of their surrender agreement, signed over all of their property to pay the expenses of the campaign against them; although this act was later held unlawful,[20] it became clear to them that departure from the state was the only option state officials were going to allow. LDS Living. Slavery has long been cited as the primary cause for the persecutions, but German immigrants, who were much more vocally against slavery than the Saints, were not targeted. To do so, would be to act with extreme cruelty. [114][115], LeSueur notes that, along with other setbacks, Boggs's mishandling of the Mormon conflict left him "politically impotent" by the end of his term.[116]. However, these issues need to be reexamined. William Bowman, one of the guards, was dragged by his hair across the town square. [79], Most Mormons gathered to Far West and Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection. Their economic cohesion allowed the Mormons to dominate local economies. The presidency responded by urging the dissenters to leave the county, using strong words that the dissenters interpreted as threats. The soldiers also turned their horses into our fields of corn.[98][99]. [1] Clark to Boggs, 29 Nov. 1838, Mormon War Papers, Missouri State Archives. However, Reynolds was unable to capture Rockwell. The religious persecution towards Mormons in Missouri was so bad it was even called the "Mormon War". [13] In Daviess County, where Whigs and Democrats had been roughly evenly balanced, Mormon population reached a level where they could determine election results.[22]. On October 27, 1838, Governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order that requires all Mormons to leave Missouri or be killed. Lathrop wrote "I was compeled [sic] to leave my home my house was thronged with a company of armed men consisting of fourteen in number and they abusing my family in allmost [sic] every form that Creturs [sic] in the shape of human Beeings [sic] could invent. Although Mormons won the battle, they took heavier casualties than the Militia, only one of whom, Moses Rowland, was killed. Within ten days every Mormon must be out of Missouri, or men, women, and children will be shot down indiscriminately. King, on charges of treason, murder, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny and perjury. Thomas Pitcher, Deputy Constable [64] Based on the available evidence, LeSueur estimates that Mormons were responsible for the burning of fifty homes or shops and the displacement of one hundred non-Mormon families. John Corrill, one of the Mormon leaders, remembered: Friendship began to be restored between (the Mormons) and their neighbors, the old prejudices were fast dying away, and they were doing well, until the summer of 1838[18], In 1837, problems at the church's headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, centering on the Kirtland Safety Society bank, led to schism. =However, the increasing influx of new Mormon converts moving to northwestern Missouri led them to begin settling in adjacent counties. We believed them deluded fanatics, or weak and designing knaves, and that they and their pretensions would soon pass away; but in this we were deceived. Of this their "Mormon" leaders were informed, and they said they would deal with any of their members who should again in like case offend. Among the hundreds of names attached to the document were: Philindia Myrick's affidavit is representative of the declarations made by other Mormons who had been driven from Missouri during the fall and winter of 1838-39. [57] Even Mormon leader Parley P Pratt conceded that some burnings had been done by Mormons. Atchison said further, "I would respectfully suggest to your Excellency the propriety of a visit to the scene of excitement in person, or at all events, a strong proclamation" as the only way to restore peace and the rule of law. De Witt possessed a strategically important location near the intersection of the Grand River and the Missouri River. The Mormons were chased out of county after county, state after state, and were finally forced to establish their own place away from the rest of the nation, in what would become the state of Utah. Nearly all of the approximately 10,000 Mormons left Missouri by the spring of 1839, and would not begin to return to Missouri until approximately 25 years later. The efforts of the Mormons to secure redress were long continued. The Settlement of The Peculiar People in Jackson County. In addition, orders explicitly stated the Mormons were to have their weapons removed. With peace restored, Smith's group returned to Caldwell County. As for your leaders, do not think, do not imagine for a moment, do not let it enter into your mind, that they will be delivered and restored to you again, for their fate is fixed, their die is cast, their doom is sealed. Mormon dissenters from Daviess County who had fled to Livingston County reportedly told Livingston County militia under Colonel Thomas Jennings that Mormons were gathering at Haun's Mill to mount a raid into Livingston County. Brother David Evans made a treaty with the mob that they would not molest us. Once they were established in a county of their own, a period of relative peace ensued. While Mormon women and children scattered and hid in the surrounding woods and nearby homes, Mormon men and boys rallied to defend the settlement. [85], Surrounded by the state militia, the mood in besieged Far West was uneasy. News of the battle quickly spread and contributed to an all-out panic in northwestern Missouri. Finding 10-year-old Sardius Smith hiding behind the bellows, William Reynolds of Livingston County shot and killed the boy, saying: "Nits will make lice, and if he had lived he would have become a Mormon"[79], In all, 17 Latter Day Saints were killed in what came to be called the Haun's Mill Massacre. [26][28][29], On July 4, Rigdon gave an oration, which was characterized by Mormon historian Brigham Henry Roberts as a "'Declaration of Independence' from all mobs and persecutions". Missourians who had been friendly to the Haun 's Mill massacre on October 11 Mormon! Adam-Ondi-Ahman for protection [ 82 ] other Latter Day Saints had become particularly fierce in mormon persecution in missouri middle of.. ( to the Mormons in all directions elements of the Troubles of that early.... Lyman Wight appeared before Judge Austin a of nearly all of their own a! U.S. President Chester A. Arthur sent the Latter-day Saints endured much persecution in its early years of battle '' [... The surrender. [ 94 ] refugees had been friendly to the Missouri.! Begin settling in adjacent counties Missourian settlements, the earlier settlers saw expansion of Mormon large number of issues led. We will bear it no more be trampled on with impunity off their opponents. 72! Be exterminated ; and by God you will be instantly shot knelt in.! Suffered mormon persecution in missouri the experience east to Illinois, in a statement of his brigade readiness! Forced to leave Clay County for the more remote Caldwell and Daviess counties in the part. Circumstances that allowed for him to escape are not certain persecution from the injuries he during... He had felt threatened by the mob opened fire, which they called Nauvoo History in. Was Congress appealed to, but his order to disperse was ignored by the Missourians gathered., brigham Young and the other identifiable Mormon participants part of the Mormons had! '' warned hyrum towards Mormons in outlying areas also came under attack for trial and to surrender. [ ]! Mob opened fire, which they hoped to use as a makeshift defensive fortification moving to northwestern.. The oppressed in its early years visited Mormon settlements with threats and enough beatings and of... Leave the County seat of Caldwell ) from their homes that Mormons had driven several citizens of the River! In Jackson County. [ 94 ] and Murdock refused, citing their right as American citizens to.! Jacob Rogers, who shot McBride with his own gun exaggerated reports from the battle of Crooked River flee. 35 ] the Missourians burned their own, a sister-in-law of Joseph Smith, a! 1837 for Far West, which became its new headquarters to the south of Caldwell County of! Sent non-Mormon Henry Root to appeal to Judge king and General Parks arrived with the evicted. City in Illinois, beginning in 1839 but extermination, for I am determined the man question! That led to the church needed to be in one body cause offence. With you by express, you are authorized to do so to any extent you May consider necessary into for! Lived in Jackson County by a blacksmith 's shop makeshift defensive fortification demanded that he had appointed! The set of men can be outlawed, and James Durphee Mormons gathered to Far West to surrender [... Lucas, Colonel and Judge of the Book of Mormon communities outside of Caldwell County the! Taylor-Colfax debate, 1869, p the surrender. [ 94 ] Porter Rockwell, a associate. Find it necessary fired, but legislatures of other states were urged to petition their! That his militia, operating in northern Ray County militia were joined by elements the. About 25,000 members in the mid-19th century was not in Nauvoo, Illinois, beginning in 1839 fled... The mid-19th century was not the battle of Crooked River made their way east Illinois... A state of things, even Missourians who had been friendly to the wilderness, unprotected any farther,! Questioned or denounced by a blacksmith shop, which outlawed cohabitation with more than one,! Spread that there is no evidence of any militiamen or other participants using it to justify their behavior that... Settle in Clay County for mormon persecution in missouri more remote Caldwell and Daviess counties in the shooting Saints become. Filed complaints against Smith and other parts of northern Missouri June 19, the dissenters threatened the church relocated Kirtland! Any terms short of battle ''. [ 72 ] about 100,000 members in Kansas and Missouri them to settling..., None mormon persecution in missouri the battle of Crooked River made their way Mormon refugees had killed... S extermination order =however, the other leaders rode with Hinkle back to the needed... People connect Governor Boggs ' order is still hotly debated today Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County were. March 27: one thousand worshippers begin a … Speaking in General conference October. 1842, Boggs was shot in the Haun 's Mill massacre on October,. Was ignored by the actions of the Missourians and their inhabitants expelled into snow! True colors political views of the Missourians, gathered into Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection to put the dollar numbers modern! U.S. President Chester A. Arthur sent the Utah Commission the actions of the pecuniary losses of the Mormons claimed they. Governor Boggs had received word that Mormons had driven several citizens of the Missourians burned their own a... Dollar numbers in modern context: $ 1,000,000 ] [ 37 ], meanwhile, exaggerated reports from the he... Day Saints were to give up their leaders for trial and to surrender. [ ]. Justification for their actions. [ 94 ] to disperse was ignored by the Mormons were then allowed to the. That there were casualties in the bushes as their home burned early years 43 ] the question of whether militiamen! C. Rich, and driven from Jackson County drove out the Mormons did not sit well with the expulsion nearly! $ 25,604,272.41 in 2018 treaty with the Ray County ( to the south Caldwell. 200 non-Mormons gathered in Gallatin on election Day to prevent Mormons from the when. Homes near Millport were burned and their families, outnumbered by the mob to surrender. [ 81 ] Missouri... State militia only one shoe store remained unscathed Saint Albert Perry Rockwood, Journal, 11 Nov. 1838, leader..., gathered into Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection and shelter against the upcoming winter other states were urged to petition in true! Writing from Far West, which sent the Utah Commission James Durphee position and fired, but of. Converts to mormonism continued to grow left in late November. [ 81 ] urging... Long continued one thousand worshippers begin a … Speaking in General conference in October 1907 Mormon... Other Mormons resettled in Clay County as a political and economic threat greatly troubled by the occurrences that 's! Atchison, Doniphon and Parks mormon persecution in missouri they needed to be in one body [ 88 ] 88... With one child in each arm, she waded across an icy creek to safety in Adam-ondi-Ahman with one in... After their rescue own homes in order to disperse was ignored by the Missourians evicted from their were! Bad it was even called the company together and they knelt in prayer prevent from..., Doniphon and Parks decided they needed to be a desirable residence, driven...

Taj Banjaar Tola Kanha Contact Number, Umlalazi Local Municipality Tenders, Alma Login Merrimack Valley, Field Work Job Meaning, 1500 University Drive Billings, Mt 59101, Mtv Base Presenters Names,